Publications for category: Brochures

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Brochure: African Potato
Summary: African potato is a perennial geophytes herb that belongs to the family Hypoxidaceae and is one of the larger species in the genus Hypoxis.
 
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Brochure: Aloe Ferox
Summary: Aloe ferox is a succulent plant belonging to the Aloaceae family, which includes the dwarf aloes (Haworthia, Poelnitzia and Astroloba) and gasterias (Gasteria), which are also aloe-like in appearance and growth. The Aloe ferox derives its name from the f
 
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Brochure: Alstromeria (Inca lily)
Summary: The plants are susceptible to the general insect pest, bacteria, fungus and viral diseases. However, not serious problems are experienced in this regard. It is always important to sterilize the soil beforehand in order to reduce the incidence of dise
 
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Brochure: Amadumbe 2010
Summary: This ‘‘potato of the tropics’’, Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta ) is found all over the world in subtropical regions cooked much like a yam. Amadumbe, originated in Oceania and South East Asia,
 
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Brochure: Amaranth 2013
Summary: by most leaf-chewing insects. Tarnished plant bug, leafminers, flea beetles, grasshoppers, caterpillars and amaranth weevils, are potentially significant insect pests of amaranth. Flea beetles damage young leaf tissue. The adult amaranth weevil feeds
 
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Brochure: Amarula 2010
Summary: Marula is widely distributed from Ethiopia to South Africa. It is native in the following countries: South Africa, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Botswana etc.
 
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Brochure: Anthurium (flamingo flower)
Summary: Anthurium (fl amingo fl ower) is a plant that produces beautifully coloured spathe and a tail like spike. Anthurium fl ower is originally from South America. The anthurium name is derived from the Greek words ‘Anthos’ which means ‘fl owering’ and ‘Oura
 
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Brochure: Apricots
Summary: The apricot tree is deciduous and needs a relatively cold winter for proper dormancy and flower bud development (400–600 hours below 7,2 °C during winter). Apricots are used both as a fresh fruit, juice and dried fruit.
 
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Brochure: Bambara groundnut
Summary: The centre of origin of the bambara groundnut has been a matter of discussion, however, it is generally accepted that wild plants are found from the Jos plateau and Yola (northern Nigeria) to Garua (Cameroon), and possibly in the Central African Republic
 
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Brochure: Bananas
Summary: Banana and plantain are native to Southeast Asia, where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. Bananas are believed to have been introduced to Africa in prehistoric times.
 
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Brochure: Baobab
Summary: Baobab is a deciduous tropical fruit tree ranging in height from 5 to 25 m and is distributed in belts in low-lying areas across Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka and Australia.
 
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Brochure: Barley
Summary: Barley is considered as the oldest cultivated cereal crop.
 
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Brochure: Basil
Summary: Ocimum basilicum is an erect herbaceous annual plant, sometimes grown as a short-lived perennial in some areas. It grows in a bushy shape to about 50 cm tall and some varieties may even grow taller.
 
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Brochure: Beetroot
Summary: The beetroot is indigenous to Asia Minor and Europe. It is grown widely in Germany and France and to a lesser degree in other European countries, Africa, Asia, and South America.
 
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Brochure: Bitter watermelon
Summary: into a thick vegetative cover over the soil surface, attained in 6 to 8 weeks after sowing. The movement in the crop should then be reduced to prevent plant damage.
 
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Brochure: Black Nightshade
Summary: Black nightshade originated from South Africa. It was sparingly naturalised on the Eyre Peninsula. The crop was widely distributed throughout the tropics and temperate regions of the world.
 
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Brochure: Black Tea
Summary: The botanical classifi cation is Camellia sinensis. It is an evergreen shrub which can grow up to 17 m tall.
 
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Brochure: Bottlebrush (Callistemon species)
Summary: The bottlebrush is a woody shrub native to Australia. Most bottlebrushes occur in the east and south-east of Australia. Bottlebrush shrubs can be found growing from Australia’s tropical north to the temperate south. They often grow in damp or wet condi
 
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Brochure: Brussels sprouts
Summary: Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group, also known as Brussels sprouts, is a tall-stemmed cabbage in which the axillary buds in the axis of each leaf form tiny heads or sprouts.
 
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Brochure: Buchu
Summary: Agathosma betulina is a member of the family Rutaceae, commonly known as the citrus family, and is a typical component of Cape fynbos. There are 150 species in the genus Agathosma. A. betulina (round-leaf buchu) and A. crenulata (oval-leaf buchu) are the
 
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Brochure: Cabbage
Summary: Cabbage is believed to have evolved from a wild form native to Europe, growing along the coast of the North Sea, the English Channel and the northern Mediterranean.
 
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Brochure: Cactus pear
Summary: Cactus pear is indigenous of the semi arid basins and valleys of South America (Mexico) 20 000 years ago and later spread to the entire American continent and after it spread to the rest of the world.
 
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Brochure: Cancer bush
Summary: Cancer bush grows almost everywhere, however, it prefers full sun, well-drained soils and a location receiving substantial moisture. The optimum day temperature should be about 25 o C. 7,6 to 8,1 and is susceptible to winter fr
 
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Brochure: Canola
Summary: Canola is defined as any of several varieties of the rape-plant, which have been grown in Europe since the 13th century.
 
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Brochure: Caring for your flowers at home
Summary: Here are some of the tips to extend the vase life of cut flowers: • Buy good fl owers, they should not be completely open and the leaves and the buds must be clean and free of damage and disease • Remove lower foliage so that it is not in vase water. L
 
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Brochure: Carnations
Summary: Carnations prefer cool weather, in which they can develop better colour and stronger stems. Since it is a half-hardy perennial, for ideal growth it requires cool summers and maximum sunlight during winter. The ideal night temperature is between 10 °C
 
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Brochure: Carrot
Summary: Carrot is believed to have originated in Afghanistan, which remains the centre of diversity of D. carota.
 
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Brochure: Cassava
Summary: Although still a subject of some debate, the centre of origin of cassava is generally believed to be the southern border of the Amazon basin, Brazil.
 
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Brochure: Cauliflower
Summary: Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, belongs to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family, which also includes cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, mustard and rape seed.
 
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Brochure: Celery
Summary: Celery is a native to the Mediterranean area and is derived from wild Apium graveolens L., which grows in the marshes of Europe and North Africa and in mountainous parts of southern Asia. The early form of celery was leafy, pungent and bitter and its
 
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Brochure: Chamomile
Summary: Matricaria recutita is an annual herb with erect, light green, smooth, multibranched stems. The entire plant is downy and greyish green in colour. The plant grows to approximately 60 cm and has yellow disc, white, ray flowers.
 
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Brochure: Chick Pea
Summary: Chickpea is one of the minor South African pulse crops; it is probably originated in South-Eastern Turkey.
 
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Brochure: Chicory
Summary: Chicory prefers fertile, well-drained soils rich in organic matter for best growth. Loams, silt loams and clay loam soils often out-yield the lighter textured sandy soils as the latter have lower water retention ability and the crop suffers moisture
 
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Brochure: Chillie
Summary: These hot vegetables are native to the tropics of Central and South America and are among the oldest cultivated crops on this continent.
 
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Brochure: Chives
Summary: Chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.) belong to the same family as onions, leeks and garlic. Although chives are native to Asia and Eastern Europe, by the sixteenth century they were common plants in herb gardens throughout Europe. Chives are hardy, drough
 
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Brochure: Chrysanthemums
Summary: Appreciation is extended to the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Library for providing us with relevant sources of information. We would also like to thank the five divisions of the Directorate: Plant Production, which are Indigenous
 
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Brochure: Cleome 2013
Summary: age is caused to young plants, which may die off or have the growth points severely damaged. Significant damage may also be caused to older plants. The bugs, especially in the early stages of development, gather in masses and suck the sap from plants.
 
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Brochure: Coffee
Summary: The coffee plant is a woody perennial evergreen that belongs to the Rubiaceae family. The plant can grow to heights of 10 m if not pruned, but producing countries maintain coffee at 3 m to facilitate picking. Two main species are cultivated today
 
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Brochure: Cotton
Summary: The adult moth has two distinct forms; one has grey front wings while the other is yellowish brown. The dark spots on the front wings often form a V-shaped mark.
 
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Brochure: Cowpea 2013
Summary: stalk borer and weevils (when in storage). Other important pests also include the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora), various leafhoppers, the Egyptian leafworm (Spodopteris littoralis), larvae of the African bollworm (Heliothis armigera) and cowpea leaf
 
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Brochure: Cultivated Indigenous and Naturalised Food Crops
Summary: A map indicating where certain indigenous food crops are found in the country.
 
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Brochure: Devil's claw
Summary: Devil’s claw is a perennial, herbaceous plant. The name is derived from the herb’s un usual fruit, which seem to be covered with numerous small hooks. Devil’s claw is a prostrate, mat-forming plant and it is consid ered as a weed.
 
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Brochure: Dry beans
Summary: Dry beans (Phaseolus spp.) originated in Central and South America. Today field beans are the most widely cultivated species of Phaseolus and, in terms of tons of crop produced per year, they are the second most important legume in the world (soya-beans a
 
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Brochure: Eggplant
Summary: Eggplant, Solanum melongena L., is a popular vegetable crop grown in the subtropics and tropics.
 
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Brochure: Flax
Summary: Fibre flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an annual plant that grows rapidly and reaches a height of 1 m, depending on the variety, plant density, soil fertility and available moisture.
 
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Brochure: Fruit vegetables
Summary: Vegetable-like fruit types are vegetables formed from the fruit of the plants that bear them.
 
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Brochure: Garden Peas
Summary: Peas were introduced into North America with the first European settlers and are now the world’s fourth largest legume crop. Important centres of production include Europe, China, India, North America, New Zealand and Australia.
 
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Brochure: Garlic
Summary: Garlic is native to Europe and central Asia. It was used in England by the first half of the 16th century and was later taken to the Mediterranean area.
 
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Brochure: General guidelines for the production of essential oil crops
Summary: Essential oil crops are crops that have volatile, aromatic oils in certain parts of the plant, and the oil is extracted through steam distillation, chemical extraction or CO2 extraction. (February 2012)
 
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Brochure: Gerbera
Summary: During winter, and in dark and cool periods with high humidity in the greenhouse, Botrytis can be a serious problem for these plants. The humidity must be kept below 70% during the day and below 85% at night.
 
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Brochure: Globe artichoke
Summary: The globe artichoke is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean—there are references to it being grown in Italy and Sicily from around 300 BC.
 
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Brochure: Granadilla
Summary: It is native to tropical America, although the actual place of origin is unknown. It was growing in Barbados in 1750 and is present in several other Caribbean Islands and in Bermuda.
 
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Brochure: grape fruit
Summary: Grapefruit is native to the tropics of Jamaica, it was discovered 260 years ago and it is growing wild on several West Indian islands and the mountains of Haiti. Grapefruit is increasingly spreading throughout the rest of the world with time. The vari
 
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Brochure: Green Beans
Summary: The green bean was born in the hot region of the Americas, India and China. The green bean is a summer crop that is very sensitive to frost. They require a deep, well-drained but waterretaining soil that will promote rapid establishment.
 
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Brochure: Groundnuts
Summary: Groundnuts are susceptible to a wide range of weeds, which are in huge competition with groundnuts for available soil moisture, soil nutrients, light, space or serve as hosts for diseases. Weeds can result in a low yield, poor quality of the groundnut
 
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Brochure: Hoodia gordonii
Summary: Hoodia gordonii is a leafless, spiny succulent that grows up to 50 cm high. Plants under ideal conditions can attain a height of 1 m. Hoodia takes five years to fully mature and the plant is about 0, 61 m tall.
 
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Brochure: Indigenous Food Crops
Summary: Indigenous food crops refer to crops that have their origin in South Africa or Africa.
 
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Brochure: Indigenous food crops 2010
Summary: Indigenous food crops refer to crops that have their origin in South Africa. Added to these drops are those that were introduced into the country and are now recognised as naturalised or traditional crops.
 
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Brochure: Industrial Crops Flyer
Summary: Industrial crops are plants which are classified primarily because of their industrial uses, but they may also have secondary domestic applications.
 
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Brochure: Jerusalem artichoke
Summary: Helianthus tuberosus L., Jerusalem artichoke, is a native of North America. It is a perennial of the Asteraceae family (Compositae) that is grown as an annual. The tops die off in the early winter at which time the tubers are harvested.
 
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Brochure: Kei Apples
Summary: It is native to the Kei River (from which the common name derives) area of Namibia and abundant in the wild around the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal
 
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Brochure: Kougoed
Summary: Sceletium tortuosum is a small groundcover, insect pollinated plant and it is climbing or creeping. It is also a low-growing plant
 
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Brochure: Lavender
Summary: Most lavender species originate in the Mediterranean basin, in rocky, calcareous areas. Lavender occurs over North Africa, Meriterranean Europe and Western India.
 
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Brochure: Leafy Vegetables
Summary: Leafy vegetables are a highly variable group of crop plants that broadly can be defined as vegetables grown for their edible leaves. However, the distinction between leafy and non-leafy crops is not always clear. Leafy vegetables include, among others,
 
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Brochure: Lemon balm
Summary: Lemon balm is susceptible to mildew. Several practices will reduce or prevent powdery mildew. Do not plant in low, shady locations.
 
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Brochure: Lemon grass
Summary: Cymbopogon citratus is a fast growing, lemon scented perennial aromatic grass. Lemon grass can reach a height of up to 1,5 m.
 
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Brochure: Lettuce
Summary: Lettuce probably originated from Asia, where it was grown for centuries.
 
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Brochure: Maize
Summary: Maize is only known in the cultivated state, and is believed to have originated in Mexico in prehistoric times.
 
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Brochure: Mango
Summary: Mango is native to southern Asia, especially Myanmar and eastern India. Mango trees require tropical and warm, subtropical areas with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 °C. Mangoes will grow in almost any well-drained soil, whether sandy, loam or clay.
 
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Brochure: Medical Plants Of South Africa
Summary: African ginger is a herbaceous perennial plant of the forest floor. The flowers are broadly funnel- shaped, pink and white in colour. The leaves are light green, heart- shaped and borne on the end of stem-like leaf bases. The stems reach a
 
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Brochure: Mobola plum
Summary: Mobola plum is native to Africa. It is widely distributed from Senegal and Kenya to the southern part of Mpumalanga and Swaziland, towards Zimbabwe and the northern part of Limpopo Province.
 
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Brochure: Monkey Orange
Summary: Monkey orange is frequently grown from seed. It can also be grown by vegetative propagation using grafting.
 
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Brochure: Musk Melons
Summary: Muskmelon is native to tropical Africa, particularly the eastern region south of the Sahara dessert. It is a warm-season crop that grows best in a hot, dry climate, with optimum temperatures of 27 to 30 °C.
 
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Brochure: Num Num
Summary: Num-num is native to the coastal region of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is widely distributed from the southwestern part of Western Cape along the coastal areas through Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, and Limpopo provinces. It also occurs in L
 
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Brochure: Nuts
Summary: The cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), originated in South America (Bolivia and adjoining countries) and is now grown throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.
 
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Brochure: Oats
Summary: It is not well known where or when the common cultivated oats originated from but it is believed to be mainly of Asiatic origin.
 
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Brochure: Okra
Summary: Okra is a popular vegetable which originated from the hot climates of Africa. Originating in Africa, the plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world.
 
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Brochure: Orange
Summary: Oranges can be eaten fresh, used to make marmalade, to make juice, and when rotten they can be fed to animals.
 
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Brochure: Orange fruit
Summary: The bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) originates from China, where it was documented in writing by 300BC and later spread to Europe, then throughout the western and southern regions. The sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is native to the South East Asia (
 
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Brochure: Papaya
Summary: The plant originated from tropical America and is considered as one of most important fruit crops in the Philippines because of its great economic potential. Papaya thrives best in areas with a dry climate (25– 30 °C), in humid to fairly humid conditions
 
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Brochure: Parsnipsflyer
Summary: The plant is a biennial, belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) or parsley family, it is said that parsnips originated in the Mediterranean area. The crop is grown as an annual and the thickened, cream-coloured root is the edible portion. It is a long s
 
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Brochure: Peas
Summary: The origin of the garden pea is Egypt where it has been cultivated before the Christian era. Probable centres of origin are considered to be Ethiopia, the Mediterranean area. Peas grow best at cool temperatures of 13 to 18 °C.
 
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Brochure: Pelargonium Sidoides
Summary: Pelargonium sidoides is a tender evergreen perennial herb that belongs to the family Geraniaceae
 
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Brochure: pepperarktree
Summary: The inner bark is used as a treatment for malaria, colds, chest complaints, coughs, diarrhoea, muscle pains, stomach-ache and general body pains. Dried and ground into a snuff, pepper-bark tree is used to clear the sinuses; and it is chewed or smoked
 
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Brochure: Peppermint
Summary: The origin of peppermint species cannot be determined. Dried leaves were found in the Egyptian pyramids dating back to 1000 BC.
 
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Brochure: Persimmon
Summary: Persimmon is originally from China, and from there it spread to Korea and Japan.
 
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Brochure: Pigeon peas
Summary: Pigeon peas originated in India and appeared about 2000 BC in West Africa, which is considered their second major centre of origin.
 
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Brochure: Plums
Summary: The origin of plums can be traced along two lines, viz. the common European plum and the Japanese plum. Plum trees require sufficiently low temperatures during the winter (winter chilling) to enter into a rest period (or winter dormancy).
 
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Brochure: Protea
Summary: The majority of the protea family originates from South Africa and Australia; however this family is widely distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere with few species found in tropical Africa, tropical America, New Zealand, Pacific Islands and Ma
 
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Brochure: Red milk wood
Summary: Red milkwood is native to Africa. It is widely distributed from Tanzania in the north to KwaZulu- Natal in the south.
 
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Brochure: Rhubarb
Summary: Rhubarb was first grown for its root, which was used for medicinal purposes (approximately 5 000 years ago in China). It was grown in Europe in the 1700s but not until 1778 was it definitely recorded as a food plant. Rhubarb was introduced into Britain in
 
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Brochure: Rooibos tea
Summary: Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) is a shrubby legume that is indigenous to the mountains of the Western Cape, South Africa.
 
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Brochure: Rose geranium
Summary: Perargonium cv.Rose' is endemic to the Western Cape. It is a hybrid species that was developed from crossing P. captain and P. radens. Rose geranium is mainly grown in the Lowveld of Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape and Limpopo provinces.
 
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Brochure: Rosemary
Summary: Natives to the Mediterranean, rosemary grows freely in large parts of southrn Europe and is cultivated throughout the world.
 
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Brochure: Sasil
Summary: Agave sisalana is a tall perennial monocotyledon with knife-shaped leaves that form a rosette close to the ground. These fl eshy, rigid leaves are usually greyishgreen to dark green. The plant grows slowly,
 
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Brochure: Sorghum
Summary: Sorghum is considered to have originated in Ethiopia and its main centre of distribution is in Africa.
 
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Brochure: Soy Beans
Summary: Soy beans are indigenous to Manchuria, China. The crop is considered one of the five oldest cultivated crops and was utilised by the Chinese as a source of food before 2500 BC.
 
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Brochure: Spinach
Summary: Spinach originated in Iran. The Arabs introduced spinach into North Africa, from where it was taken to Europe.
 
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Brochure: Squash
Summary: Squashes are warm climate crops requiring a temperature range of 18 to 27 °C for growth, the ideal being 18 to 20,5 °C.
 
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Brochure: Strawberries
Summary: Strawberries were cultivated by the Romans as early as 234 BC and in mediaeval times strawberries were regarded as an aphrodisiac. Berries prefer to grow in areas were the winters are very cold followed by mild summers.
 
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Brochure: Sugar Cane
Summary: Sugar cane is the common name of a species of herb belonging to the grass family. The botanical classifi cation of sugar cane is Saccharum offi cinarum, and it belongs to the family Gramineae.
 
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Brochure: Summer squash
Summary: Summer squash is a subset of squashes that are harvested when immature (while the rind is still tender and edible).
 
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Brochure: Sunflower
Summary: Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) is one of the few crop species that originated in North America, even though other reports suggest the Fertile Crescent, Asia, South or Central America.
 
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Brochure: Sweet Corn
Summary: The centre of origin for sweet corn is the southwest hemisphere, Mexico, and Peru. Sweet corn requires a warm to hot, frost-free growing season.
 
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Brochure: Sweet potato
Summary: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a member of the morning glory family, originated in South Mexico and Central America and is now the seventh most important food crop, worldwide.
 
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Brochure: Swiss chard
Summary: Swiss chard has been cultivated since 300 BC and roots of the wild chard were used as medicine. Swiss chard is a cool season crop that grows best at temperatures ranging from 7 to 24 °C.
 
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Brochure: Thyme
Summary: Thymus vulgaris is a small perennial sub-shrub, semievergreen groundcover that rarely grows more than 40 cm tall.
 
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Brochure: Tomato
Summary: Tomato is indigenous to the Peru and Equador region in South America and it probably evolved from Lycopersicon esculentum var.
 
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Brochure: Turnips
Summary: Turnips are indigenous to northern Asia and widely grown in Europe, Asia and the United States (Hartmann e.al.). Turnips are native to central and southern Europe; they grow wild in Eastern Europe and Siberia. Their cultivation has spread to most reg
 
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Brochure: Watermelon
Summary: Muskmelon is native to tropical Africa, particularly the eastern region south of the Sahara dessert. It is a warm-season crop that grows best in a hot, dry climate, with optimum temperatures of 27 to 30 °C.
 
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Brochure: Wheat
Summary: The origin of the wheat is not precisely known. Wheat evolved from wild grasses, probably somewhere in the Near East. A
 
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Brochure: Wild ginger
Summary: Wild ginger is a herbaceous perennial plant of the forest floor. This means that its lifespan extends over 2 years and it does not accumulate woody tissue. Wild ginger belongs to the family Zingiberaceae.
 
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Brochure: Wild Medlar
Summary: Wild medlar is native to Botswana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. It occurs from the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland, Gauteng, Limpopo and the North West to Northern Cape.
 
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Brochure: Winter squash
Summary: Winter squash is a warm season crop that is relatively easy to grow but also requires a long season to produce a marketable crop
 
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Brochure: Wormwood
Summary: Artemisia afra is a highly aromatic plant, an erect multi-stemmed perennial shrub of up to 2 m in height. A. afra is planted in temperate and subtropical regions and can be cultivated successfully where rainfall is in excess of 650 mm per year.
 
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Brochure:Marula 2013
Summary: Using a slicing movement cut the basal end of the scion into a wedge . o Insert the scion into the rootstock, ensuring a tight fi t. It is most important that the green rings of both scion and rootstock match perfectly.
 
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Poster: Beverage crops
Summary: Production and processing of selected beverage crops.The requirements, production and processing methods for black tea and coffee differ from those of other teas (i.e. honeybush tea, rooibos, bush tea, etc.). - Honey bush tea, rooibos tea and bush tea ar
 
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Poster: Bulb vegetables
Summary: Bulb vegetables have underground, vertical shoots that have modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases) that are used as food storage organs by the dormant plants. Some bulb vegetables, garlic for example, are also known for their medicinal values.
 
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Poster: Classification and essential parts of fibre crops.
Summary: There are a number of different fibres found in plants, namely: bast fibres, leaf fibres, seed fibres, fruit fibres and wood fibres.
 
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Poster: Mulchin
Summary: Mulch is a layer of decaying organic matter on the ground. Mulch occurs naturally in all forests; it is a nutrient rich, moisture absorbent bed of decaying forest leaves, twigs and branches, teeming with fungal, microbial and insect life. Natural mulch s
 
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Production guideline: Aloe ferox 2013
Summary: The name Aloe is derived from the Greek word for the dried juice of aloe leaves, and ferox refers to the spiny edged leaves. Aloe ferox is a succulent plant belonging to the Aloaceae family, including the dwarf aloes (Haworthia, Poelnitzia and Astrolob
 
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Production guideline: Parsnips
Summary: Parsnips are native to Europe and Asia and were used by the ancient Greeks and Romans for medicinal and food purposes. Parsnips were introduced into North America in the early 1600s and were grown by the early colonists and Indians. Parsnips are bienni
 
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Production guideline: Potatoes
Summary: Potatoes are grown year round owing to the country’s unique geography and climate. Potatoes are classified by harvest season, skin type and intended market use. Market use classification includes fresh market, processing, seed potatoes and specialty va
 
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Production guideline: Sweet pepper
Summary: Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) originate from central and South America where numerous species were used centuries before Columbus landed on the continent (Manrique, 1993). The cultivation of peppers spread throughout Europe and Asia after the 1500
 
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Production guideline: Wild mary rosemary 2013
Summary: Wild rosemary is an evergreen shrub with the name Eriocephalus africanus that is indigenous to South Africa. It is very pretty, generally easy to grow and is valued for its flavour and fragrance. Wild rosemary is believed to have originated in South A
 
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Production guidelines: African wormwood
Summary: Artemisia afra is distributed worldwide; there are more than 400 species, mainly from the Northern hemisphere. Many of the other Artemisia species are aromatic perennials and are used for medicinal purposes. (February 2012)
 
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Production guidelines: Agro-ecology
Summary: Agro-ecology is a discipline that uses ecological theory to design, manage and evaluate agricultural systems that are productive but also conserve natural resources. Agro-ecological farming also refers to interactions of all important biophysical, techn
 
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Production Guidelines: Amadumbe
Summary: This potato of the tropics or amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta) is found worldwide in subtropical regions and is cooked much like a yam.
 
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Production Guidelines: Amaranthus 2010
Summary: Amaranth originated in America and is one of the oldest food crops in the world, with evidence of its cultivation reaching back as far as 6700 BC.
 
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Production guidelines: Asparagus
Summary: Asparagus originated from Asia Minor, parts of Russia, the Mediterranean region and the British Isles, where it still grows wild in saline areas. It has been cultivated for food by the ancient Greeks and Romans, who also used its berries and undergroun
 
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Production guidelines: Avocado
Summary: Currently avocados are commercially grown not only in the United States but throughout tropical America and the larger islands of the Caribbean. Other countries involved in cultivation of avocados
 
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Production guidelines: Bambara groundnuts
Summary: The beans are related to cowpeas and botanically known as Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.
 
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Production guidelines: Bambara groundnuts 2011
Summary: Bambara is an African indigenous crop; it is used for both human and animal consumption.
 
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Production guidelines: Barley
Summary: Barley is regarded as the oldest grass plant of the cultivated winter cereals found in the more temperate parts of the world.
 
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Production Guidelines: Basil
Summary: Basil is widespread in Asia, Africa and Central and Southern America. It appears to have its centre of diversity in Africa. There are more than 50 species of basil.
 
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Production guidelines: Beetroot
Summary: The beetroot is indigenous to Asia Minor and Europe. They were first used for food about the third century AD although they had been grown for thousands of years for medicinal purposes.
 
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Production guidelines: Bitter Watermelon
Summary: Bitter watermelon originated from southern Africa and occurs naturally in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zambia and Malawi. It is widely distributed in Africa and Asia.
 
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Production guidelines: Black Jack
Summary: Blackjack originated from South America and is common in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is recorded as a weed in cultivated land and used as vegetable or pot herb in many African countries such as Kenya, the Congo, Botswana, Zambia
 
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Production guidelines: Black nightshade
Summary: Black nightshade originated from South Africa. It was sparingly naturalised on the Eyre Peninsula. The crop was widely distributed throughout the tropics and temperate regions of the world.
 
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Production guidelines: Brussels sprouts
Summary: Brussels sprouts is a cultivar group of wild cabbage cultivated for its small (typically 2,5–4 cm) leafy green buds, which resemble miniature cabbages. They are part of the cruciferae or mustard family, so known because of a four-part flower in the sha
 
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Production guidelines: Cabbage
Summary: Cabbage is believed to have evolved from a wild form native to Europe, growing along the coast of the North Sea, the English Channel and northern Mediterranean.
 
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Production guidelines: Canola
Summary: Canola is a special biotype of rapeseed. The word "canola" is derived from "Canadian oil, low acid".
 
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Production guidelines: Carrot
Summary: Carrot is believed to have originated in Afghanistan which remains the centre of diversity of D. carota.
 
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Production guidelines: Cassava
Summary: Cassava is grown as a secondary crop in South Africa by smallholders and is utilised for the production of starch (commercial and food grade starch).
 
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Production guidelines: Cauliflower
Summary: Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae.
 
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Production Guidelines: Chinese cabbage
Summary: Chinese cabbage originates in China and was distributed to other countries through the regions and spread around the world. The crop probably found its way from Asia into Africa as a result of trade between two continents.
 
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Production guidelines: Citrus
Summary: Citrus fruit are categorised as oranges, limes, lemons, grapefruit and kumquat fruit. The citrus fruit list has various cultivars such as navels, valencias, clementines, mandarins and tangerines. These varieties differ in taste, harvesting time and colou
 
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Production Guidelines: Cleome 2010
Summary: Cleome gynandra is reported to have originated in tropical Africa and South East Asia.
 
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Production guidelines: Coffee
Summary: Coffee originated in Africa, in the Ethiopian region known as Kaffa. From Ethiopia, coffee was taken to Arabia and finally brought into Europe. Coffee houses started emerging in Europe in the mid 1600s first in Italy and later in England. Coffee reache
 
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Production guidelines: Comparative analysis of central attributes in Organic Farming and Agroecology
Summary: Bellon, Lamine, Ollivier and de Abreu. 2011. The relationships between organic farming and agro-ecology, Proceedings of the Third Scientifi c Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR), held at the 17th IFOAM Orga
 
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Production guidelines: Cowpeas
Summary: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is one of the most ancient human food sources and has probably been used as a crop plant since Neolithic times.
 
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Production guidelines: Dry beans
Summary: The dry bean is at present regarded as one of the most important field crops in South Africa on account of its high protein content and dietary benefits.
 
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Production guidelines: Flax
Summary: Fibre flax, linseed and linolaTM refer to the same plant, Linum usitatissimum, which belongs to the Linaceae family.
 
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Production guidelines: Garden Peas
Summary: Pea is an important frost-hardy, cool-season, nutritious leguminous vegetable that is widely cultivated throughout the world.
 
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Production guidelines: Garlic
Summary: Garlic is native to Europe and is said to have been disliked by the Romans because of its strong odour but was fed to their labourers and soldiers.
 
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Production guidelines: German chamomile
Summary: German chamomile is an annual plant that is native to Southern and Western Europe, and North and West Asia. (February 2012)
 
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Production guidelines: Grapes
Summary: The Hex River Valley is the country’s main table grape production area; more than half of all grape exports come from this district, which has the longest harvesting period in the country. The Northern Cape is a very dry province, so most of the grapes
 
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Production guidelines: Groundnuts
Summary: The cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), originated in South America (Bolivia and adjoining countries) and is now grown throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.
 
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Production guidelines: Hydroponic vegetable production
Summary: Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions (water containing fertilizers) with or without the use of an artifi cial medium (sand, gravel, vermiculite, rockwool, perlite, peatmoss. coir, or sawdust) to provide mechanical support.
 
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Production guidelines: Hydroponic vegetable production - Layout
Summary: Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions (water-containing fertilisers) with or without the use of an artificial growing medium (sand, gravel, vermiculite, rockwool, perlite, peatmoss, and sawdust) to provide mechanical suppor
 
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Production guidelines: Indigenous food crops
Summary: Indigenous food crops refer to food crops that have their origin in South Africa. Added to these crops are those that were introduced into the country and are now recognised as naturalised or traditional crops. They are divided into three main categories;
 
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Production guidelines: Jew Mallow
Summary: The origin of Jew’s mallow is unknown, but it has reportedly been cultivated for centuries, both in Asia and Africa. It occurs in the wild on both continents. It is native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. It is widely distribut
 
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Production guidelines: Kenaf
Summary: Kenaf is a warm season, short-day, annual herbaceous bast fi bre plant which originated from West Africa. Kenaf belongs to the family called Malvaceae (Mallow) for both its economic and horticultural importance. Under good conditions kenaf will grow t
 
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Production guidelines: Kooigoed
Summary: Kooigoed is a strong aromatic perennial herb or shrublets. About 245 species of Helichrysum occur in South Africa, of which the best known and commonly used medicinal plants are H. cymosum, H. odoratissimum, H. petiolare and H. nudifolium. The Afrikaa
 
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Production guidelines: Lavender
Summary: Most lavender originates in the Mediterranean basin, in rocky, calcareous areas. Lavender occurs over North Africa, the Mediterranean, Europe and Western India.
 
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Production guidelines: Lemon Balm
Summary: Lemon balm belongs to the mint family and is indigenous to Southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Western Asia, and North Africa. Lemon balm is now cultivated worldwide.
 
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Production guidelines: Lemon Grass
Summary: Lemongrass is widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. The two species that are mostly cultivated in South Africa are: 66 East Indian lemongrass, Cymbopogon flexuosus, which is also known as Cochin or Malabar grass, and is native to India and S
 
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Production guidelines: Lettuce
Summary: Lettuce probably originated from Asia, where it was grown for centuries and its early forms were used in Egypt around 4500 BC.
 
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Production guidelines: Litchi
Summary: The litchi is indigenous to a small subtropical area in the south of China. Literature reveals that litchi trees were imported into South Africa from Mauritius in 1876, but some trees had already been noticed in Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal) in 1875, which
 
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Production guidelines: Marula
Summary: The distribution of the marula throughout Africa has followed the Bantu in their migrations, as it has been an important item in their diet since time immemorial.
 
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Production guidelines: Mung bean
Summary: The mung bean has been grown in India since ancient times. It is still widely grown in Southeast Asia, Africa, South America and Australia. It was apparently grown in the United States as early as 1835 as the chickasaw pea. Virtually all the domestic p
 
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Production guidelines: Mushrooms
Summary: There are different assumptions concerning the origin and cultivation of mushrooms.
 
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Production guidelines: Muskmelons
Summary: Muskmelons, often called cantaloupes in the United States, are not commonly grown here in South Africa, although their cultivation is slowly increasing in many areas of the country because of their export grade.
 
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Production guidelines: Oats 2010
Summary: Oats is believed to be mainly Asiatic in origin. Different kinds of oats probably came from various parts of that continent or Europe.
 
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Production guidelines: Onions
Summary: Onions are believed to have evolved in the arid regions of Western Asia.
 
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Production guidelines: Orange
Summary: Oranges can be eaten fresh, used to make marmalade, to make juice, and when rotten they can be fed to animals.
 
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Production guidelines: Organic agriculture mitigates climate change
Summary: Organic agriculture should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment. • Organic agriculture is a living and dynamic system that responds to internal an
 
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Production guidelines: Pearl Millet
Summary: Pearl millet originated in central tropical Africa and is widely distributed in the drier tropics and India.
 
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Production guidelines: Peppermint
Summary: The origin of peppermint species cannot be determined. Dried leaves were found in the Egyptian pyramids dating back to 1 000 BC. Two species of mint were used by the ancient Greek physicians, however, some writers doubt whether one is the modern peppermin
 
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Production guidelines: Potatoes
Summary: Potatoes were fi rst cultivated on the Titicaca Plateau in the Andes mountains of Peru and Bolivia where they formed the basis of both the Inca and Aymara Indian diet.
 
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Production guidelines: Pumpkins
Summary: About 40 000 ha of pumpkins are grown yearly in South Africa. Pumpkins are being produced countrywide in South Africa.
 
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Production guidelines: Rose geranium
Summary: The genus Pelargonium comprises about 270 distinct species. Most of the known species are endemic to the Western Cape. (February 2012)
 
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Production guidelines: Rosemary
Summary: Native to the Mediterranean, rosemary grows freely in large areas of southern Europe and is cultivated worldwide. (June 2009)
 
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Production guidelines: Sorghum
Summary: Sorghum is the 5th most important grain crop after wheat, maize, rice and barley.
 
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Production guidelines: Soya beans 2010
Summary: Soya beans are indigenous to Manchuria, China. The crop is considered one of the five oldest cultivated crops and was utilised by Chinese as a source of food before 2500 BC.
 
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Production guidelines: Squash
Summary: The taxonomy of the Cucurbit family varies with three different cucurbit species, namely Cucurbita maxima, commonly known as pumpkins, Cucurbita pepo, known as squashes and Cucurbita moschata which comprise butternut squashes.
 
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Production guidelines: Subtropicalfruit
Summary: Subtropical fruit is categorised as fl eshy fruit (bananas, avocados, litchis, kiwi fruit, mangoes, guavas, pineapples, papayas and granadillas) and nuts (cashew, macadamia, pecan, almonds and walnuts). Each fruit has various cultivars, which have differ
 
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Production guidelines: Sunflower
Summary: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crop species that originated in North America (most originated in the Fertile Crescent, Asia or South or Central America).
 
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Production guidelines: Sweet potato
Summary: Sweet potato is cultivated as a perennial in tropical and subtropical lowland agro- ecologies, although it is well adapted to other zones and can be grown over widely different environments.
 
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Production guidelines: Swiss chard
Summary: Swiss chard has been cultivated since 300 B.C. and roots of the wild chard were used as medicine.
 
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Production guidelines: Thyme
Summary: Thyme is the general name for the many herb varieties of the Thymus species, all of which are native to Europe and Asia. Common or garden thyme is considered the principal type, and is utilised commercially for flowering and ornamental purposes. Thyme is
 
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Production guidelines: Tomato
Summary: Tomato is indigenous to the Peru and Equador region in South America and it probably evolved from Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme, the cherry form.
 
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Production guidelines: Watermelon
Summary: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a warm, long-season crop. Watermelon has been marginally competitive in the 2000 to 2003 production seasons as a vegetable crop.
 
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Production guidelines: Wheat
Summary: The precise origin of the wheat plant, as we know it today is still unknown. Wheat evolved from wild grasses, probably somewhere in the Near East.
 
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Quality assurance: Fresh Vegetables Regulations
Summary: A carrier container must be strong enough not to bulge out or dent in during normal handling and transporting practices.