Agricultural Digest 2005/2006
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (ARC)
ARC-Animal Improvement Institute, Irene
ARC-Animal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute, Irene
ARC-Grain Crops Institute
ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering
ARC-Institute for Industrial Crops
ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water
ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops
ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute
ARC-Range and Forage Institute
ARC-Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute
ARC-Small Grain Institute
The Chief Executive Officer: Dr N. Mzamane
Agricultural Research Council (ARC) Central Office.
P.O.Box 8783, Pretoria 0001.
(1134 Park Street, Hatfield, Pretoria).
Public Relations: The Group Head, Public Relations:
Ms Nkami Sethole
Tel. (012) 427 9700. Fax: 012-4305814.
The Agricultural Research Council (ARC) is a parastatal organisation and one of eight science councils in the South African National System of Innovation. Through its wide network of research institutes and experimental farms, the ARC provides a strong scientific base and a broadly distributed technology transfer capacity to the entire agricultural industry in South Africa.
Vision of the ARC
“To be a nationally and internationally recognized centre of excellence in agricultural science and innovation”
Mission of the ARC
“To promote the agricultural and related sectors through research, technology development and technology transfer in order to:
· Enhance the natural resource base and environment
· Sustain a competitive agricultural economy
· Provide new economic opportunities
· Ensure high quality and safe food
· Support an informed society and
· encourage the national growth and development of South Africa”
In the governance of the ARC, the Council is responsible for policy making while the Executive Management Committee (EMC) is responsible for the execution of the policies determined by the Council.
The members of the Council are appointed as prescribed by the Agricultural Research Act, 1990 (Act No. 86 of 1990), as amended. The Minister for Agriculture and Land Affairs appoints Council members on the grounds of their expertise in agriculture, marketing, training of agriculturists and veterinarians, business and financial management, law, research, technology development or technology transfer in agriculture.
The Council meets regularly, exercises control over the ARC and monitors its executive management committee.
relations, Marketing and Information
ARC Corporate Public Relations unit promotes the ARC by means of exhibits
targeting the agricultural sector and the general public. At institute level,
the Public Relations programmes actively promote the ARC through interaction
with the media and the preparation of videos and TV programmes. The ARC
institute activities are also communicated by means of general posters and
exhibits at events such as farmers' and information days, symposia and
congresses, training courses, and various institute publications.
Corporate Business Liaison programme manages the content of printed and
electronic information resources and general marketing of the products and
services of the organisation. The ARC Corporate Business Liaison programme
produces internal publications and various annual and promotional publications.
It manages all technical reporting for performance monitoring purposes and
collates information for various reports, a range of publications, the web site,
and numerous other applications. It also manages the quality control of the
Management Information System. The unit assists institutes in recruiting project
and service funding. Links with national and international organisations are
established and potential clients and political decision-makers are made aware
of ARC expertise.
to contact for these services:
widely dispersed ARC capacity covers a range of expertise. In support of the
research institutes, several specialised units coordinate corporate activities
to promote research, technology development and technology transfer. The
activities managed at a corporate level are:
INSTITUTES OF THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
National Department of Agriculture is the ARC's direct line function to
Government. The ARC Central Office provides several guidelines to the individual
institutes in the form of a framework for planning and budgeting.
institutes operate an extensive participative process to ensure that
needs-directed research is performed. Planning committees, comprising
representatives of the relevant industries, customers, markets and related
sectors, are formed.
needs are identified; proposals are prepared by the ARC and authorised by the
stakeholders; and the result forms the basis for the allocation of funds.
Organisation and main functions of the institutes
1. Natural Resource Use and Management
Quality of Life
4. Informed Society
To ensure and enhance
world-wide access to agricultural information in the possession of the ARC and
international agricultural research and development organisations.
5. Integrated Rural Development
To empower resource poor
people and communities, through research and research-based information and
education, and to address the economic and social challenges of our youth,
families and communities.
is grouped into five programmes that address research and technology development
pertaining to Grain and Industrial Crops, Horticulture, Livestock, Public
Support Services and Sustainable Rural Livelihoods.
The three Programmes for
Grain & Industrial Crops, Horticulture and Livestock conduct
applied and adaptive research for improved intensive and extensive crop and
technologies provide improved crop cultivation through crop genetics, nutrition
and management practices. Livestock production is enhanced through genetic
improvement, nutrition, health and management practices. ARC communicates
agricultural research and technology developments through publications and
farmers' days. New technologies are continuously transferred to improve
production for both commercial and resource poor agriculture.
agricultural development that promotes sustainable natural resource utilisation.
Biodiversity is promoted through ARC's guidance regarding the conservation,
management and sustainable use of South Africa's unique fauna and flora. ARC
encourages indigenous knowledge systems through utilisation and optimised
technologies. It promotes the sustainable use of indigenous plants and animals
and is conducting research to ensure maximum benefit to all communities in South
AND INDUSTRIAL CROPS PROGRAMME
Executive: Dr Phindile Lukhele-Olorunju
Grain Crops Institute (Potchefstroom)
and cultivation of grain crops, for example summer grains such as maize, sorghum
and millet as well as oil and protein seeds like sunflower, groundnut, soybeans,
dry beans, cowpeas, sweet white lupin and bambara. Research activities include
plant breeding, evaluation of cultivars, grain quality, plant physiology,
tillage, weed science, plant pathology, entomology and yield potential.
Small Grain Institute (Bethlehem)
and cultivation of small grain crops such as wheat, barley, oats, triticale and
rye. Research on plant breeding, evaluation of cultivars, grain quality, plant
physiology, tillage, weed science, plant pathology, entomology and yield
Institute for Industrial Crops (Rustenburg)
and applied research on cotton and tobacco, industrial crops such as hemp, sisal
Group Executive: Mr Fikile Guma
Institute for Tropical & Subtropical Crops (Nelspruit)
of tropical and subtropical fruits such as citrus, pineapple, banana, avocado,
mango, litchi, guava, papaya and granadilla, tea, coffee and spices, as well as
pecan, macadamia and cashew nuts. Lesser-known exotic crops with potential are
also evaluated, e.g. cacao, coconut, feijoa, annona types, carambola, jaboticaba
and white sapote. Research activities comprise horticulture, cultivar
development, plant nutrition and irrigation.
Roodeplaat Vegetable & Ornamental Plant Institute (Pretoria)
vegetables such as onions, potatoes, tomatoes and sweet potatoes, indigenous
vegetables include amaranthus, cassava, plectranthus, Zulu round potato,
pigeonpeas, cowpeas and bambara. Research on the production and development of
ornamentals and indigenous flora such as fynbos,
woody ornamentals and bulbs and natural products.
and post-harvest technology of deciduous fruit such as apples, peaches, plums
and pears, berry fruits, tree nut crops, rooibos tea, honeybush tea, dates,
olives, kiwi fruit and hops. Also the cultivation of table, raisin and wine
grapes as well as the production of wine and brandy.
Group Executive: Dr Steve Cornelius
Animal Improvement Institute (Irene)
for the improved quality of animals, genetic and physiological methods to
identify and study superior livestock breeding material in order to improve the
efficiency and production of the national herd.
Animal Nutrition & Products Institute (Irene)
animal production through improved nutrition. Research is conducted on beef and
dairy cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and poultry and
technologies to enhance the quality of meat and dairy products.
Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (Pretoria)
and control of animal diseases as well as a public health service regarding
animal products such as milk, meat and eggs. Research in specialised
diagnostics, parasitology, toxicology and related disciplines. Various vaccines
and other biological products are developed and produced. Research into
infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease and African swine fever.
Range & Forage Institute (Pretoria)
integrated land-use strategies, guidelines for sustainable livestock and
rangeland management systems. Research on vegetation, rehabilitation ecology,
pasture agronomy and vegetation biology.
Executive: Dr Mishack B Molope
Public Support Services provide research and services that protect public assets, which contribute to health, human safety, improved quality of life and the environment.
ARC is responsible for scientific support of quarantine, has several internationally acclaimed reference laboratories, conducts surveillance and monitoring, and provides test facilities and services to support agricultural regulatory services. ARC provides public services that contribute to plant and animal protection, natural and scientific resources, genetic diversity and agricultural trade. ARC expertise also supports the administration of international trade and environmental agreements. ARC promotes awareness and educates the public regarding the sustainable management of natural resources.
Institute for Agricultural Engineering (Pretoria)
mechanization, resource conservation, farm structures, irrigation, alternative
energy, aquaculture and product processing, performance testing of equipment.
Innovative energy sources and applications are developed for rural areas.
Prototypes and pilot equipment.
Institute for Soil, Climate & Water (Pretoria)
sustainable utilisation and protection of natural resources. Research activities
cover soil science, agrometeorology, water utilization and analytical services.
Remote sensing and geographic information systems.
Plant Protection Research Institute (Pretoria)
ecology and epidemiology of vertebrates, as well as fungi, pathogenic and useful
bacteria, and viruses. Control of pests and invasive plants through effective
pesticide management as well as biological and integrated control strategies.
Plant genetic resource, quarantine of imported biocontrol agents, advice on
apiculture, quality control of legume inocula, provision of cultures of
biocontrol agents, identification of organisms important in agriculture, as well
as specialised information on pesticide application and biological control.
RURAL LIVELIHOODS PROGRAMME
Executive: Dr Sefora Masia
Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Programme
sustainable farming systems through participatory development and research to
adapt technologies and services appropriate for all farmers.
It is a cross-cutting programme supported by all 13 institutes. ARC
assesses the impact of improved productivity, appropriate technologies, training
and services on food security and employment opportunities for resource-poor
farmers. Technology development contributes to small, medium and
micro-enterprises in agri-business, Spatial Development Initiatives and low
input cost undertakings, leading to economic growth, job creation, as well as
national and household food security.
Financial, technical and intellectual resources are directed to the needs of the disadvantaged and supports resource-poor agriculture. There will be an increased awareness of the needs of resource-poor farmers and the value of integrated socio-economic analyses. The strategic geographical re-orientation of ARC capacity and research inputs will lead to improved sustainability, economic development, job creation and social upliftment.
Director: Dr P Van der Merwe / Mr Attie De Beer
Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520.
Liaison: Mr Johan Els.
Tel. (018) 299 6100.
Fax: 018-2947146/ 2976572.
The Institute (ARC-GCI) is responsible for research on the improvement and cultivation of grain crops, i.e. summer grains, and oil and protein seeds.
Research activities involve plant breeding, the evaluation of cultivars, grain quality, plant physiology, tillage, plant nutrition, weed science, plant pathology, entomology, nematology and yield potential.
The vision of the Institute is to develop and transfer technology to all its clients, thereby creating opportunities for entrepreneurs in the agricultural industry through training and the development of skills. This will ultimately contribute to a higher standard of living, food sustainability and economic competitiveness of the entire country.
Research and Technology
Manager: Dr G.J Thompson
Research Facility Manager: Mr P Shabangu
Private Bag X82075, Rustenburg 0300.
Molope & Antoon
Tel. (014) 536 3150.
Fax: (014)-536 3113.
ARC-IIC was founded in 1926 as a
specialist division of the Department of Agriculture to advise farmers on
tobacco production practices, in support of an initiative by the Transvaal
Government in 1906/07. In 1980,
after the restructuring of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, research
was also focussed on cotton since it was gaining popularity in the same
production areas as tobacco.
the ARC-IIC is responsible for all fundamental and applied research
relating to the production of cotton, hemp, flax, sisal, kenaf, indigenous fibre
species and tobacco. Technology transfer forms a major part of our endeavours.
Knowledge is imparted to large and small commercial farmers and small-holders in
all the production areas of these crops or potential crops. The main aim of the
research is to develop guidelines for cultivation practices such as
fertilization, irrigation, plant population and the control of weeds, diseases
accomplish these aims, the institute has three divisions:
Plant Breeding Division, which is involved in the breeding and registration
of new high-yielding, disease-resistant cultivars that can produce
Soil and Crop Science Division that investigates new production management
systems and provides relevant services through their soil, water and
plant analysis laboratory; and
Plant Protection Division which conducts research on diseases of viral,
bacterial and fungal origin, and also on control measures for insects and
nematodes. This division also operates a diagnostic laboratory that provides
a service for producers regarding disease, pest and nematode damage on its
enable appropriate research to be conducted for the above crops, the institute
operates nine satellite stations in the relevant production areas. All research
activities are demand driven and determined by interaction between all the
role-players in the different industries and the Provincial Departments of
Agriculture. In this way, the Provincial Departments of Agriculture assist in
the development and subsequent implementation of appropriate technology which
fulfils the specific needs and aspirations of emerging and resource-poor farmers
as well as commercial farmers.
The ARC-IIC offers a one-stop service facility to farmers who require assistance with any of the above-mentioned crops.
Director: Dr J. le Roux
Private Bag X29, Bethlehem 9700.
Liaison: Ms Elri Burger.
Tel. (058) 307 3400.
As a research institution, the ARC-Small Grain Institute (ARC-SGI) operates in accordance with its mandate on an entirely need-directed basis in all the significant small-grain producing regions of South Africa. Research and technology needs are continually determined by means of a dynamic process of consultation with all role-players, viz. small-grain farmers, provincial and the National Department of Agriculture, universities, cooperatives, Grain SA, Agri SA, the National African Farmers' Union (NAFU), etc. A special and focused attempt is directed at making available existing technology, infrastructure and expertise, and at developing new technology for the specific needs and aspirations of emerging and resource-poor farmers, as well as for the informal market sector.
At present the ARC-SGI is the only institution of its kind that delivers a one-stop research, information and technology service to all small-grain farmers and related industries in the country. Over the past decade its cultivars have on average produced 60% of the annual wheat crop in South Africa.
The technology programme of the Institute, which is entirely demand-directed, is conducted in all nine provinces. The various research fields are as follows: crop science, plant breeding, plant diseases, plant nutrition, soil tillage, grain quality, entomology and weed control. Research expenditure on wheat represents 83% of the total budget while the groupings barley and oats, durum and triticale each account for 7 % and 10% of the total budget respectively.
Director: Dr J.L. van Zyl
Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599.
Liaison: Daleen Bosman.
Tel. (021) 809 3100.
ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij was founded on 1 May 1997 during the amalgation of ARC-Stellenbosch Institute for Fruit and Fruit Technology and ARC-Nietvoorbij Institute for Viticulture and Oenology, bringing together over 100 years' expertise in the field of agricultural research.
The new Institute is the largest of the ARC's 13 institutes. It has developed into a world-renowned, one-stop research facility, generating leading-edge technology for the South African deciduous fruit, grape, wine and brandy industries. It renders a need-directed service through leading and dynamic research, technology development and transfer technology, ensuring economic viability and growth of these industries.
Research priorities are directed by producer needs and market demands, and are determined in conjunction with the relevant industries and the target communities. Annually the Institute's 10 research divisions handle 235 research projects on average. There are 12 research divisions. Diagnostic and analytical services are also provided.
Research and Technology Manager: Dr G.D.J. van Rensburg
Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit 1200.
Ms Janine Julie
Tel. (013) 753 7000
Fax: (013) 752 3854
The ARC-Institute for Tropical
and Subtropical Crops (ARC-ITSC) is responsible for research on all aspects of
the cultivation of tropical and subtropical crops countrywide. Assigned crops
are citrus, pineapple, banana, avocado, mango, guava, litchi, papaya,
granadilla, coffee and spices, as well as pecan and macadamia. The lesser-known
exotic crops being evaluated are feijoa, annona types, carambola, jaboticaba and
white sapote. Research activities comprise horticulture, cultivar development,
plant physiology, biotechnology, entomology, pathology, as well as plant
nutrition and irrigation. Research is supported by datametric and meteorological
Institute offers an advisory service (including consultations), as well as an
information service to tropical and subtropical industries worldwide. Scientific
services are based on problem identification and appropriate recommendations.
To complement the research efforts at Nelspruit, investigations are also carried out at Addo, Burgershall, Friedenheim, Hluhluwe, Malelane, Bathurst and Merensky (Tzaneen).
Dr S Venter
Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001.
Ms Estia Joubert.
Tel. (012) 841 9611.
Fax: (012) 8081127.
This Institute specialises in research and transfer of technology on vegetables including edible indigenous and traditional African vegetables, potatoes and flowers (bulbs and woody ornamentals including fynbos). The commercial vegetables include onions, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and the indigenous vegetable crops cover amaranthus, cassava, plectranthus, Zulu round potato, pigeonpeas, cowpeas and bambara. Natural plant products for herbal purposes and essential oils are investigated.
Roodeplaat underwrites purposeful and cost-effective technology development to address the basic needs, human skills and economic development of all agricultural industries.
Institute's main research centre is situated at Roodeplaat, near Pretoria. To
conduct research in other climatological areas, personnel are also stationed at
ARC-ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT INSTITUTE, IRENE
Dr M. M. Scholtz
P/Bag X2, Irene 0062.
Tel. (012) 672 9111.
This Institute (ARC-AII) became part of the Agricultural Research Council on 1 April 1995.
It is responsible for applicable technology focused on livestock improvement. This task may be divided into three main categories, viz.
the improvement of the efficiency of animal production through research, and the rendering of specialised services in the field of production physiology, animal genetics, the conservation of rare species and development programmes;
the enhancement of production efficiency in the livestock population through locally developed and adapted quantitative and applied animal breeding programmes. The estimation of breeding values for stud animals is also an important function that benefits the entire livestock industry;
the effective management of the six livestock improvement schemes in order to enhance the biological and economic efficiency of the livestock industry. A special effort is being made to accommodate farmers with limited resources and to make the schemes available to all African countries.
Leader: Dr H.H. Meissner
P/Bag X2, Irene 0062.
Tel. (012) 672 9111.
Fax: (012) 665 1550.
The ANPI is situated 3 km south of Irene, Pretoria, and consists of several Departments focusing on Animal Nutrition, Farming Systems and Small, Micro and Medium Enterprise Development, as well as Animal Production and Food Security, respectively.
The ANPI is responsible for research and development in the field of animal nutrition, animal products and food derived from animal production. The ANPI serves both the primary animal production sector and the secondary value-adding food manufacturing sector, focusing on the following areas:
efficient use of food resource in animal nutrition;
efficient production of animal products: post-harvest technology to ensure quality products to the urban and rural consumer;
an effective analytical service to determine the nutritive value of animal feeds and food products derived from animal production;
catering for specific needs i.e. value-adding to dairy products in rural communities;
ensuring food safety and hygiene in production lines and food chains;
contributing to household food security and income by adding value to basic animal products;
training courses and consultation services to the livestock industry and food industries.
Acting Director: Dr Mosuke
Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort 0110.
Liaison: Ms Erna Klopper.
Tel. (012) 529 9111.
Fax: 012-565 6573.
The mission of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) is to combat animal diseases and to protect animal and human health through research, diagnosis and the development of appropriate counter-measures such as vaccines. The OVI has been appointed as a Regional Collaborating Centre for both the OIE and the FAO and also houses a number of OIE World Reference Laboratories.
Research is conducted in infectious diseases, parasitology, toxicology and related disciplines. Strong emphasis is placed on the application of modern techniques for genetic manipulation towards the development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents. The Institute provides a comprehensive diagnostic service to its various clients, including farmers, veterinarians, provincial veterinary authorities and state veterinary services in South Africa and elsewhere.
Throughout its history since 1908, the emphasis has been on the problems of Africa and many of the pioneering studies conducted at Onderstepoort have resulted in unique solutions with a profound effect on animal production on this continent.
The knowledge gained has also benefited developing countries elsewhere and contributed towards the growth of veterinary science worldwide. The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, a leading African veterinary journal, is in its 67th year of publication.
The Exotic Diseases Division (EDD) is a unique, strategic facility designed for the safe handling of highly contagious pathogens of animals, such as FMD (foot-and-mouth disease) and other dangerous animal diseases that threaten the country's livestock industry.
Presently the laboratory houses an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) reference centre for African swine fever (ASF) and is recognised by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) as the collaborating centre for FMD and ASF for sub-Saharan Africa. Apart from that, the EDD works closely with a number of international partners elsewhere in Africa, Europe and in the USA.
Primary objectives of the laboratory are the laboratory diagnosis and research into dangerous animal pathogens, particularly FMD and ASF, as well as the production of vaccine for FMD. Vaccine is produced in association with the Institute for Animal Science and Health (IDDLO) in the Netherlands and marketed internationally by Intervet International.
In order to ensure that the activities of the laboratory do not themselves pose a threat to South Africa's livestock industry a wide range of biological safety and containment measures is implemented in order to prevent the escape of viruses. In this respect the Institute complies with the international standards set by the OIE.
The EDD has attained pre-eminence in the study of the epidemiology of SAT (South African Territory) types of FMD virus, especially in relation to wildlife and the use of molecular techniques to assist in the diagnosis and control of the disease.
ARC-RANGE AND FORAGE INSTITUTE
Dr A Smith
Private Bag X05, Lynn East 0039 (Pretoria).
Ms Una-Lou Lecuona.
Tel. (012) 841 9611.
Fax: (012) 808 0446.
The main goal of the ARC-Range
and Forage Institute is to ensure long-term food
security and quality of life through the development
and conservation of South Africa's natural resources i.e. vegetation, livestock,
soil and water. It is the mandate of this Institute to promote the sustainable
utilisation of the veld, pasture and livestock resources, by improving and
increasing animal products (meat, diary and fibre) without degredation of the
natural resources and the loss of biodiversity. To achieve this, close alignment
with government, collaboration with user groups and co-ordinated interaction
between research and development institutions concerned with livestock
production from veld and pastures, is of utmost importance. The latter is
necessary to ensure that the institutions are: *assisting government to achieve
the goals of their national agricultural policy, and *to provide effective
technology outputs to all farmers.
The focus of the Institute's operational plan is on the livestock industries and their related farming communities who produce meat, wool, mohair and dairy products from veld and pastures. The successful attainment of this focus will only be possible if the Institute's Research and Development (R&D) activities are incorporated into nationally coordinated, interdisciplinary and multi-institutional goals. The R&D programmes to sustain livestock production from veld and pastures include:
vegetation monitoring for landcare and bio-diversity;
veld (vegetation) production for livestock and landcare;
veld and livestock management for landcare;
veld rehabilitation, reclamation and revegetation to promote biodiversity and landcare;
forage biodiversity in landcare;
support and development services for previously disadvantaged farming communities.
and Technology Manager: Prof T.E Simalenga
Private Bag X519, Silverton 0127.
Ms Elmarie Stoltz.
Tel. (012) 842 4000
Fax: (012) 804 0753
addition to contributing to the economy, the agricultural sector also provides
job and food security. This Institute (ARC-ILI) fulfils a pivotal role as almost
no agricultural activity can be undertaken without some sort of equipment,
system or facility that is supported by agricultural engineering technology.
The aims of the Institute are determined by the priorities of agricultural communities, the provinces, clients, funding organisations, as well as the establishment and maintenance of skills within the Institute. Research is undertaken in the following fields of agricultural engineering:
Aquaculture – Research on housing methods and production systems has led to success with the development of cage culture for catfish, tilapia and trout. Other focus areas are consultations, planning, development in the erection of equipment, feasibility studies, purification of effluent and training support;
Irrigation – efficient water management includes technology for cost-effective irrigation water application and the sustainable utilization thereof. Tests and evaluations are also undertaken on irrigation equipment in world-class laboratories. Reports are published in the media for use by all farmers, designers, merchandisers and the industry;
solutions to replace non-renewable fossil fuels with renewable energy sources such as wind, water, biodiesel etc.
Resource conservation – prevent the deterioration of soil as an agricultural resource through the evaluation of techniques, materials and structures. Other focus areas are planning and design of resource conservation structures;
Climate-controlled structures – develop and furnish technologies for cost-effective climate-controlled plant production structures and facilities for commercial farmers, small-scale farmers and ARC Institutes;
Agricultural electro-techniques – this includes the development of borehole measurement equipment, insect traps, and the development and research on electronic equipment for specialised applications;
Mechanisation of crop production –promote the optimilisation of traction needs through research, development and advisory services;
Product processing – promote technologies for the processing of agricultural products by communities, commercial farmers and entrepreneurs;
Farm structures – includes research and the development of housing and handling facilities for livestock and poultry.
Rural engineering – all the necessary disciplines are integrated in specific projects to enhance meaningful and sustainable development. Technologies are adapted and developed to make it affordable and appropriate for small-scale production units. This includes low-cost irrigation technologies for individual farmers such as the treadle pump, developed by the Institute. On-farm processing is aimed at the promotion of processing technologies for communities, commercial farmers and entrepreneurs. Some of the products researched, developed and built are the small industrial scale peanut butter plant, household level achar-making equipment, the mini-sprayer and the maize crusher.
This Institute has well-equipped workshops and facilities at Weavindpark, Pretoria to effectively serve the wide field of agricultural engineering. The facilities enable the performance testing of irrigation equipment such as sprinklers, micro sprayers, drippers, filters and hydraulic valves. The performance of free-standing and tractor-mounted diesel engines is also tested according to international standards in the modern tractor test laboratory. Various types of equipment for domestic and agricultural use are demonstrated at the Renewable Energy Demonstration Centre and the Small and Medium Enterprise Display Area.
Technology is transferred through publications, reports, articles, radio talks, presentations at seminars and farmer's days, as well as participation in exhibits.
Prof T.E Malinga
Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001.
Liaison: Ms Adri Laas.
Tel. (012) 310 2500.
Fax: (012) 323 1157.
This Institute (ISCW), which celebrated its centenary in 2002, concentrates on the natural resources soil, climate and water.
Through its committed to research, technology development and transfer of technology, ISCW promotes the wise and sustainable utilisation of natural resources to optimise the role of agriculture. The Institute therefore serves both the community and the environment.
Research activities cover all aspects of soil science, agrometeorology, water utilisation, remote sensing and analytical services.
The Institute has modern, sophisticated and, in some cases, unique facilities and expertise, as well as excellent literature collections. Its activities are multi-disciplinary and holistic. Cost-effective technology is provided at competitive prices.
The core business of the ARC-Institute for Soil, Water and Climate focuses on the programmes characterisation and quantification of the natural resources; sustainable natural resource use and management; natural resources monitoring, auditing and impact assessment; natural resource information technology and decision systems; and multi-institutional projects and resource-poor agriculture.
ARC-PLANT PROTECTION RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Dr R Coetzee
Private Bag X134, Pretoria 0001.
Dr J Mohr.
Tel. (012) 808 8000.
Fax: (012) 808 8299.
The main focus of this specialist research institute (PPRI) of the Agricultural Research Council is on national and regional problems associated with plant protection, rather than those restricted to particular commodities and/or localised areas.
Institute, which has strong academic involvement, is committed to the promotion
of economic and environmentally acceptable pest, disease and invader weed
control in the interest of sustainable farming systems. It also provides a
strong technological support base to the phytosanitary, pesticide registration,
control of migratory pests and declared weeds, and conservation of biological
diversity functions of the Government.
Research is conducted in the field of the biosystematics, ecology and epidemiology of invertebrates, fungi, viruses, pathogenic and useful bacteria and apiculture, including honey production and pollination studies. The control of pests, diseases and invader plants is facilitated by research on effective pesticide management and biological and integrated control strategies. Research is conducted on the protection of stored grain to accommodate both large scale and on-farm needs. Research is conducted on behalf of the national and provincial government departments, organised agriculture and the private sector.
Routine scientific services include pesticide analyses, the quarantining of imported biological control agents, advice on apiculture, quality control of legume inoculants, provision of cultures of biological control agents, identification of organisms which are important in agriculture, as well as specialised information on pesticide application, biological control and forest entomology.
Research is done mainly in Pretoria, but there are also satellite units at Cedara, Uitenhage and Stellenbosch set up to facilitate on-site problem-solving. Cooperative research projects and training are also undertaken in collaboration with other African countries and international research organisations. International exploration for biological control agents involves all continents except Antarctica.
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